To better understand what eardrum perforation is and the consequences it can cause, it is important to know a little about the structure of the ear and the functions of this organ.
The ear is the auditory organ of the human being, it is made up of three parts, the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner hatred. At the same time, the outer and middle ear are separated by a very thin, conical-shaped membrane, approximately 8 mm in diameter, covered by skin and mucosa, called the Tympanic membrane, whose main function is to transform sound vibrations into nerve impulses.
Upon receiving the sound vibration, the eardrum begins to move, causing the ossicles inside the middle ear to convert this vibration into mechanical movements.
In this way, the conversion of sound waves into those nerve impulses that finally reach the brain through the organs of the inner ear begins. In addition, the tympanic membrane prevents microorganisms from entering the middle ear and causing infections.
The tympanic perforation or tympanic break, is the formation of a hole or crack in this membrane. This injury can cause hearing loss or decrease or ear infection, as described above.
Symptoms of perforation of the eardrum
· Hearing loss.
· Bloody, pus, or clear discharge or fluid draining from the ear.
· Severe pain usually goes away after the piercing.
· Feeling dizzy
· Ringing in the ears.
· Fever that may be associated with infection.
There are various causes of tympanic perforation, among the main ones we can find the following:
The AOM represents infection of the middle ear during this infection the secretion produced (mucus, pus) will accumulate in the cavity formed in the middle ear causing great pain by the pressure exerted by the accumulation of secretions on the membrane tympanic.
Upon reaching the point where the pressure cannot be contained, the tympanic membrane will spontaneously perforate to release it and thus show the disappearance of pain.
It is any object or thing that does not correspond to the normal structures present in an organ or tissue that could cause perforation of the tympanic membrane in a traumatic way.
The most common foreign bodies in this condition are swabs misused when cleaning the ears, insects, seeds, etc. Even during the procedure for the extraction of any of these bodies, tympanic perforation could occur due to the incorrect use of forceps.
During accidents that cause head trauma or direct blows to the pinna or ear canal.
Sudden pressure change
It occurs when being in the presence of sudden changes in pressure, for example when traveling in airplanes or diving to great depths. In medical terms, injuries of this nature are called otobarotrauma.
The vibrations of the air that cause the tympanic membrane to move represent acoustic waves, when the sounds are very loud, these waves will travel with greater violence towards the ear causing the tympanic membrane to move more abruptly, breaking or breaking. be pierced in some cases.
For this reason, it is advisable to keep the ears dry to avoid the proliferation of germs, not to clean excessively since the wax plays a protective function for the ear, not to introduce foreign objects and to avoid exposure to loud sounds
How to detect it
You should go to a doctor, specifically an otolaryngologist who is the doctor in charge of the nose, ears and throat.
The doctor must carry out an inspection of the ear with a device called an otoscope, this implement has a magnifying glass, a cone and light. The cone must be introduced into the ear canal and through the magnifying glass located at the other end the doctor will be able to visualize the tympanic membrane and determine if it is undamaged, that is, without injuries or if any alteration is observed.
In this case, a hole in the membrane will be visualized and the exit of secretions or fluids through said hole can also be seen.
In some cases where the cause is not easily found, the doctor may order another series of complementary tests, such as laboratory tests to determine the causative germ of the middle ear infection, tympanometry that measures the response of the eardrum to slight changes in air pressure and can indicate if it is perforated, tuning fork evaluation to evaluate the perception of acoustic vibrations by the membrane, among others.
These piercings mostly heal in a short time, on their own and without treatment. If the cause is infectious, a specific antibiotic should be prescribed and only in some cases, if the closure of the perforation does not occur spontaneously, it is necessary to resort to surgery.
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